Primavera nel Cuore della Sardegna 2018

The village of Birori is located in northern central Sardinia at the foot of the Marghine Mountain, in the Northern portion of the Abbasanta plateau. Since ancient times this area was home to human settlements, as evidenced by the presence of as many as 60 fascinating archaeological monuments, including the nuraghe Miuddu, nuraghe Sorolo and nuraghe S. Giorgio, the tombs of the giants of Palatu and Lassia and some dolmens. In medieval times the village, then called Birore , became part of the curatoria of the Marghine in the giudicato (ancient independent state governed by a King-Judge) of Torres; later, it became part of the giudicato of Arborea and was then handed over to the marquisate of Oristano. After ceasing of the Aragonese domination, it became one of the possessions of the Spanish feudal family Pimentel, owners of the marquisate of Marghine, and was later sold to Tellez Giròn.

Birori was the first town in Sardinia to have a detailed plan of archaeological monuments. The significant historic buildings include the Church of S. Stefano, built in 1500 and recently restored, where the magnificent wooden statue of the Saint and the polychrome paintings of the respective niche, may be admired.

Birori is characterized by a very special historic center, which extends around the parish Church of S. Andrea, with small streets and houses built according to the ancient Sardinian architectural model, and a modern part with new buildings, equipped with sports facilities, a well-stocked Library and a Social Gathering Center.

The area of Birori is delineated to the North by the Marghine mountain range, specifically from the peaks of Mount Manai (796 m) and Punta Coa' e Ferula (807 m), while on the Southern side, from West to East, is the valley of the Rio Murtazzolu that, collecting the waters of the Riu S'Adde and of the Riu Tossilo, becomes a major tributary of the Tirso River at the Plain of Ottana. These are sites of considerable importance from both an environmental and ecological point of view, the ideal habitat for many animal and plant species. In fact, in this area it is possible to watch herons, wild ducks, and moorhens and observe several fish species. In order to enhance and make accessible these particular places of special natural interest, the City Council has taken action to improve access to the site through the creation of an area equipped with benches and picnic tables and the placement of some paths along the banks, including a wooden walkway connecting to some of the archaeological monuments and a fishing pier. Along the course of the Rio Murtazzolu, a small overflow reservoir was recently created in order to ensure water supply during fire prevention initiatives.

In the territory of Birori, 14 natural perennial springs were found, used by local farmers for livestock watering, but also by families for household and drinking purposes. Of particular interest are the natural springs named " Funtana Idda " and " Funtana Maggiore ", where two public green areas by the same name are also located. The Western part of the residential area, surrounded by several trees of considerable interest such as ash and walnut, is the location of Funtana Idda, built in 1890 with megalithic blocks of stone. The area has undergone some improvements that allowed for greater and better enjoyment by citizens. The area of Funtana Maggiore on the other hand, is located to the South of the residential area: numerous species of birds can also be observed here, including the red woodpecker.

The area of Birori holds 52 archaeological monuments: 23 nuraghi, 14 graves of giants, 8 domus de janas, 6 dolmens, 1 Nuragic sacred well and 1 Nuragic hut. Of the 23 surveyed nuraghi, only two, Tintirrios and Serras, were not detected because of their poor condition, while just at the edge of the village, the nuraghi Arbu and Miuddu can be admired. The latter consists of a central tower surrounded by a trefoil rampart. From a typological perspective, the Birori nuraghi can be classified as a "corridor" type of nuraghi, certainly the most ancient, given that they date back to the most archaic era of the nuragic civilization (1800 - 1500 BC), and simple yet complex "a tholos" type nuraghi, that were built around 1500 BC and the 8 th - 9 th century BC. Inside the ancient inhabited area, is the tomb of the giants of "Su Palatu", consisting of an elongated and apsidal gravesite. As well known, this is a classic nuragic era building, of which there are two types: one with "dentiled stones" and the more ancient one with "arched stones", particularly widespread in the area of Birori, as well as in Marghine and Planargia. Near the train station, there are the tombs of the giants of "Lassia" which may be differentiated by a rare feature among megalithic monuments: the presence of two pairs of trapezoidal shaped niches slightly raised above the walking surface, probably used as a support for funerary offerings. To the side of the station, the dolmens of Tanca Sar Bogadas and Sa Perda' e S'Altare can be found. The dolmens, typical megalithic tombs of the Eneolithic era (2600 - 1800 BC), are relatively numerous in the township and are probably part of the Copper Age period. On the other hand, the numerous “domus de janas”, or tombs carved into stone and very modest in their single of double cell floorplan, dating back to 2000 BC, began to appear from the Middle Neolithic period and persisted until the Aeneolithic period, to be then be in vogue once again in the Nuragic and Roman periods.

Besides the lush landscape and wealth of archaeological and historical monuments, Birori offers a rich and tasty culinary tradition that is imprinted as a pleasant memory in the minds of its visitors. These include dishes that belong to the rural and pastoral tradition, such as fava beans with lard, pasta with sun-dried tomatoes, onion stew, meat broth and the classic boiled sheep’s meat, wild fennel soup, stewed snails, braided lamb entrails with peas, stewed wild boar, lamb with wild baby fennel and the inevitable spit-roasted suckling pig and lamb. Desserts include the delicious "casadinas" (formaggelle) pastries filled with ricotta and cheese, Sardinian papassini or with "sapa", a syrup made from wine must or from the Prickly Pear fruits, or more rarely, from the fruit of the strawberry tree, as well as seadas, pirichittos, origliettas and many other specialties. As in all of Sardinia, on January 17, the village hosts the Feast of Sant'Antonio Abate, with the evocative lighting of bonfires on the eve before the Feast. From August 2 to 5, there is instead the feast of Sant’Antonio, in the churchyard of the church of Sant'Andrea.