The town of Bosa has ancient origins, so much that the first settlements date back to prehistoric times with the domus de janas first and nuraghi then and, for its location, has always enjoyed, over the centuries, great attention from the people who progressively dominated Sardinia. Bosa was one of the most famous Phoenician stations and these settlements were support points for the navigation and trade between Africa and Sicily to the Balearic Islands and Spain on one hand and Corsica and Gaul on the other. The roman Bosa, however, stood originally much upper than the hypothetical Phoenician site, on the road to Tibula Sulcos, near the present church of San Pietro.
In 1112 (date recently challenged and moved to the thirteenth century) the Malaspina Castle was built on the hill of Serravalle. From this moment a phase of urban transfer from the old to the new site began, and this ended in the fourteenth century. The old Bosa was gradually abandoned and its citizens began to build their houses at the foot of the castle in order to have protection, giving rise to the medieval quarter from the still existing historical site of Sa Costa. In 1297 Pope Boniface VIII granted the feud Sardinia to King James II of Aragon, who began to take possession of it in 1323. The fortifications of many castles of Sardinia, including that of Bosa, date back to this period. In 1308 the Malaspina sold their rights on Planargia including the castle in Mariano II of Arborea. The castle and its village passed, with the arrival of the Aragonese, first to the court of Arborea, then the territory was again in the hands of Malaspina until 1330, when they finally sold it to the Spaniard Pietro Ortis, whom we owe the widening of the walls and the creation of a pentagonal tower. In 1499 Ferdinand the Catholic declares Bosa the Royal City with all the privileges and honors, leaving the feud castle to the Admiral Villamarì. As the city grows and progresses, the interest of the feudal lords decreases the castle begins its decline and, in 1571, is abandoned by the soldiers. In the nineteenth century Bosa experienced a remarkable economic revival, especially in 1807 when it became the provincial capital, location of the Prefecture and Revenue office.
In 1887 the aqueduct, which was built in memory of the red trachyte and marble fountain that today stands in the middle of Piazza Costituzione, was inaugurated. Along the aqueduct a sewerage was built and in 1870 also a new port was built, formed by the cliff that joined the Isola Rossa to the left bank of the Temo.
Bosa is also a seaside town, with its beaches with unique features; the sand, high in iron, has the therapeutic characteristics for the treatment of rheumatism while the numerous coves where the sea still retains all its charm, can be reached only by boat. In fact, with an area of almost 300 square kilometers between the plateau Marghine to the east, the Montiferru to the south, the Logudoro to the north, the territory of Planargia extends in the north- west of Sardinia and includes the towns of Bosa, Montresta, Modolo, Suni, Sagama, Tinnura, Flussio, Magomadas and Tresnuraghes.
The extraordinary natural environment, in which just over thirteen thousand people live, is given by the particular orographic shape and its geological nature, namely the characteristic planar pattern of a series of volcanic and sedimentary hills that slope towards the coast, and from which it would appear to derive the historical denomination of the same region. However what makes it unique is that the landscape of Planargia is that in such a small geographic extension, almost all ecosystems characteristic of the island, from the sea to the coast, from the mountain to the river, are represented. The presence of the river Temo, in fact, creates an element of continuity and integration between the coastal strip, the city and the nature reserve of the middle valley. Particularly significant in this area is the olive tree on the hillside on the left and right side of the Temo. A type of landscape and environment in which the vigorous natural geographic components are joined with small textures and variously articulated anthropic spaces in the inhabited countryside.
You can then see the landscape of mountain reliefs of volcanic origin and variously stratified, articulated and tormented. The coastal area is scanned in capes and picturesque coves. In short, a real local museum of geological formations, of rare scientific and aesthetic interest. Important part of this type of landscape are the Natural Reserve of Badde Aggiosu, Marrargiu and Monte Mannu and the Biomarine Park of Capo Marrargiu. From the point of view of the wildlife area it has european and national recognition as it hosts the largest group of Griffon Vultures throughout Italy (80% of the national population). In the reserve, there are also bird species such as the Real Kite, the Golden Eagle, Bonelli's Eagle, the Peregrin Falcon. Finally, the landscape of the middle valley is characterized by internal and sunken valley of the river Temo and its tributaries: a natural conformation of the sites, suggestive for the etching of the river valley surrounded by less steep slopes and flatlands (Sa Paule di Pedrasenta).
Rich and numerous are the many monumental vestiges of this region. Among them the main are located along the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, Sa Piatta, the living room of Bosa whose nineteenth and eighteenth century buildings are adorned with multiform baroque friezes, capitals and lintels decorated with artistic carvings and balconies with elaborate wrought-iron railings. In Bosa and in the Planargia villages we can find a constant use of a local stone in the realization of buildings and monuments: the red bosan trachyte.
Immediately next to the Ponte Vecchio we find the Cathedral of the XV century, but rebuilt in the early part of the nineteenth century; then the Church of the Rosary topped by a nice shelf clock from 1875 and the square with the marble fountain, surrounded by the arches of the Palazzo Delitala and the eighteenth-century Palazzo Don Carlo. Furthermore we can visit: the Church of the Carmine with its Convent, which houses the Town Hall, built in 1779 in Piedmont Baroque style, rich of wooden decorations; not far away, on the namesake hill, the Capuchin Monastery from the early seventeenth century. Moving towards the sea, on the opposite coast of the river, opposite the medieval quarter the ancient Tanneries, built in the eighteenth century and now a national monument, overlook the surroundings. At Bosa Marina, instead, we have the church of S. Maria del Mare of Catalan Gothic origin and completed in the seventeenth century; the seaside village offers a wide beach dominated by the Aragonese Tower of the Isola Rossa, an example of military architecture of the sixteenth century.
As for the events and trade shows, during the summer months in the city and in its seaside village we have several appointments such as, for example, the exhibitions at "Casa Deriu" (ancient manor house in the historic center completely renovated with its original furnishings), the Aragonese tower of Isola Rossa in Bosa Marina. Of particular interest also the various editions of exhibitions-markets in the agricultural, antiques and local handicrafts sectors. Another event of undisputed attraction is the carnival. Unique in its genre and different from other carnivals of Sardinia on Karrasegare Osinku, from the past, it was one of many forms of entertainment approved by the community to bring together people of different sex and social status. Worthy of note are the celebrations of the Holy Week that are a tempting attraction for lovers of traditions and religious folklore in particular. Unique are, in fact, the representations that recall the passion and the via crucis of Christ, underlined by traditional songs and the procession of the faithful people, carrying statues of saints.
Numerous are the handicrafts and among these particularly important are the artistic ones, like the filet: a lace of great value, whose making is the result of an ancient bosana tradition. The net was initially invented for fishermen, then the women took advantage of the same pattern to obtain a lace stitching the net to the chassis. The goldsmiths of Bosa "sos mastros de oro", are also known under the title of "spiders of the watermark, for their making the threads of gold and silver with the mastery of the acrobat insect." The existing shops, besides the ability to work with competent craftsmanship any traditional jewelry related to the costume of women and men (buttons, rings, necklaces, charms and clasps), are also offering pieces of absolute modernity and rare beauty, combining the ancient designs with the latest trends. Working with Coral is an art practiced in Bosa since 1200, the year in which the Marseillais obtained by the Vicar of King Enzo, a "privilege" which granted them freedom of fishing and eternal exemption. With the advent of modern diving, divers, true daredevils, push themselves to greater depths, beyond 100 meters, to collect whole bushes of coral. The manufacturing of coral, as well as creating true sculptures individually sold, is integrated with the goldsmith activity, developing into creations which are most often unique, as unique are the worked pieces.
Not only beautiful to visit for its history and culture, but also to enjoy. Scents, colors and flavors of Planargia are born from the marriage between land and sea. Famous are the lobsters, unique in the whole Mediterranean basin for the particular pasture along the coasts. Its rich gastronomic menu features seafood dishes like "S'Azada", made with "S'Iscritta" (Ray) and Gattuccio (Baldolos). Very famous is the lobster soup, main dish that has received major national awards. Unforgettable is also the much renowned production of the Malvasia of Bosa wine, one among the top award winning wines in Italy, which for its peculiarity can be drunk young or aged. With a straw color with greenish reflections, intense and persistent scent of ripe fruit reminiscent of apricots and peaches, the taste is sweet and mellow. The Malvasia is considered a noble and elitist wine by the people who inhabit the Planargia, so much to be reserved for special circumstances and people: it is the wine of friendship and hospitality, and it is offered to important people.